Forgiveness: A sampling of research results (American Psychological Association 2006)
- Forgiveness is a voluntary process involving a change in emotion and attitude regarding an offender (p. 5).
- Requires letting go of negative emotions towards offender (p. 5).
- Forgiveness occurs with the victim’s recognition that he or she deserved better.
- Forgiveness is not the same as condoning, excusing, pardoning or forgetting (p. 5).
- Benefits of forgiving: psychological healing, positive changes in affect, improved mental and physical health, increase in victim’s sense of personal power, may lead to reconciliation between offender and offended, promotes hope (p. 5)
- Benefits of forgiveness interventions (learning to forgive): improved affect, lower rates of psychiatric illness, lower physiological stress responses, greater self control, improved physical well being, restores relationships (p. 6)
Forgiveness education with parentally love-deprived late adolescents (Almabuk et al)
- “Forgiveness is an unconditional gift given to the one who does not deserve it”
- Study involving college students from US, whom where randomly assigned to the experimental group (forgiveness intervention program) or a control group
- Results: the experimental group was significantly lower in anxiety and higher in forgiveness, positive attitudes toward the parents, hope and self-esteem
- Summary of Enright and the Human Development Study Group intervention model
Forgiveness and Happiness. The differing contexts of forgiveness using the distinction between hedonic and eudaimonic happiness (Maltby et al 2005)
- Hedonic wellbeing: shorter-term evaluation of present day subjective wellbeing as a balance within positive and negative affect, pleasure attainment and pain avoidance
- Eudaimonic wellbeing: longer-term psychological wellbeing resulting from the engagement with individual development and the existential challenges within life, meaning, and self reflection (scores on the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire seem to reflect eudaimonic happiness) (p. 3)
- Results of study (students from UK): active and positive forgiveness feelings and behaviors leads to eudaimonic happiness; the forgiving individual who is most likely to act positively and feel positively towards those who transgress against them are more likely to be happy (p. 8-9)
Gratitude, Forgiveness and Humility as Predictors of Subjective Well-being among University Students (Sapmaz et al 2016)
- Forgiveness not only contributes to decrement of negative feelings, but also to frequency of positive feelings (p. 39)
- Function of forgiveness: to transform negative feelings into positive feelings (p. 39)
- Healthy attempt to cope with negative outcomes caused by poor treatment by others or wrong behaviors by oneself (p. 39)
- Three sub dimensions of forgiveness: forgiveness of self, forgiveness of others, forgiveness of the situation (p. 41)
- Results of analysis: forgiveness of situation (translation of negative thoughts about bad events into positive ones, when things have become bad for uncontrollable reasons and being empathetic towards the bad events) predicts happiness (p. 43)
The Myths of Forgiveness (Juliano et al 2008)
- Forgiveness provides peace and personal freedom (p. 41).
- To seek revenge is human, to forgive is to be Christ-like (p. 41).
- Christianity is not about forgetting. It is… about remembering, and each time that we recall the injustice that has been done to us or those we love, our Christian response must be to forgive again and again (p. 42) .
- Forgiveness is a slow process. If one rushes the process and tries to oversimplify it, the result is a pseudo and insincere forgiveness. Adequate time must be given to work through the attending issues (p. 43).
- Forgiveness is in the best interest of the forgiver (p. 43).
- Martin Luther King Jr. declared that the person who chooses not to forgive is devoid of the power to love (p. 43).
- I’m not asking you to forgive him because what he did was acceptable: it was mean and selfish. I’m asking you to forgive because he doesn’t deserve the power to live in your head and turn you into a bitter, angry woman. I’d like to see him out of your life emotionally as completely as he is out of it physically, but you keep holding onto him by holding on to that resentment, but you’re hurting yourself (p. 44).
- Forgiveness is the greatest gift that one gives to oneself. Forgiveness is an act that results in a healing of spirit, mind and body (p. 44).
- Six myths of forgiveness: forgiveness and reconciliation are the same, forgive and forget, forgiveness is easy, forgiveness must be communicated to the other, forgiveness is a gift to the one who has offended, forgiveness approves the behavior of the offender (p. 42-44).
Granting Forgiveness or Harboring Grudges: implications for emotion, physiology, and health (Oyen-Witvliet 2001)
- Study examined emotional and physiological effects when participants rehearsed hurtful memories and nursed unforgiving responses (rehearing the hurt and harboring grudges) compared to when they cultivated forgiving responses (developing empathy and granting forgiveness) toward real-life offenders (p. 2)
- Results: unforgiving thoughts prompted more aversive emotion, and significantly greater facial tension at the brow, skin conductance, heart rate, and blood pressure; forgiving thoughts promoted greater perceived control and lower physiological stress responses (forgiving response are health enhancing) (p. 12-14)
- Unforgiving responses (blame, anger, hostility) with impaired health, specifically coronary heart disease and premature death (p. 3)
- Granting forgiveness is associated with emotional and physical benefits; reduced stress, less negative emotion, fewer cardiovascular problems and improved immune system performance (p. 6).
Forgiveness: Who does it and how do they do it? (McCullough 2001)
- Forgiveness is distinct from: pardon, condonation, excusing, reconciliation (p. 194)
- The two normal and common responses to transgressions are avoidance and revenge, but these have negative consequences for individuals, relationships and perhaps society as a whole (p. 194)
- When a person forgives, the probability of restoring benevolent and harmonious interpersonal relations with their transgressor is increased (p. 194)
- Empathy fosters forgiveness; rumination (tendency to experience intrusive thoughts, affects and images about past events) hinders forgiveness (p. 196)
When forgiveness enhances psychological well-being: the role of interpersonal commitment (Karremans et al 2003)
- Forgiveness is associated with well being (p. 1011)
- Forgiveness is central to psychological healing processes (p. 1011)
- Enright and the Human Development Study Group experiment: revealed positive results; enhances well being of the individual coping with a variety of offenses; reduced levels of anxiety, anger, depression and increase in self-esteem (p. 1012)
- Results from current studies (participants were asked to bring to mind an offense by another person whom they have forgiven versus have not forgiven): forgiving is positively associated with psychological well being but the association is more pronounced when relational commitment (to the offender) is strong rather than weak (p. 1016)
- Failure to forgive someone whom we feel strong commitment results in reduced levels of life satisfaction, self-esteem, and higher levels of negative affect; failure to forgive results in a serious threat to the stability and vitality of the relationship, a basic level of trust and positive reciprocity, and feelings of attachment (p. 1023-4).